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The following bibliography contains entries for articles and books that may be of interest to scholars and practitioners interested in learning more about an intellectual virtues approach to education. (Several of the works are pitched primarily to a scholarly audience; others are pitched to teachers.) The entries are organized around topics that directly address or are closely related to educating for intellectual virtues.

The list is far from exhaustive. For instance, it does not include works in “traditional character education” (which focuses primarily on fostering moral and civic virtues). While traditional character education is similar to and intersects in important ways with intellectual character education, the literature in traditional character education is vast and many useful bibliographies of it already exist (see e.g. here and here). Accordingly, the works listed below touch (directly or indirectly) on aspects of educating for intellectual virtues that are not as clearly addressed by the research on educating for moral or civic virtues. The bibliography will be updated on a periodic basis.


Cognitive Emotions


Scheffler, Israel. In Praise of Cognitive Emotions.

Wolk, Steven. “Joy in School.”


Critical Thinking


Angelo, Thomas. “Classroom Assessment for Critical Thinking.”

Facione, Peter, et al. “The Disposition Toward Critical Thinking.”

Lai, Emily. “Critical Thinking: A Research Review.”

Paul, Richard. “Critical Thinking, Moral Integrity, and Citizenship.”

Paul, Richard and Linda Elder, Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Personal and Professional Life.

Siegel, Harvey. “High Stakes Testing, Educational Aims and Ideals, and Responsible Assessment.”

Tsui, Lisa. “Fostering Critical Thinking Through Effective Pedagogy.”


Habits of Mind


Costa, Arthur and Bena Kallick. Learning and Leading with Habits of Mind.

Goldenberg, E. Paul. “‘Habits of Mind’ as an Organizer for the Curriculum.”


Intellectual Virtues


Baehr, Jason. Intellectual Virtues and Education: Essays in Applied Virtue Epistemology.

Baehr, Jason. “Educating for Intellectual Virtues: From Theory to Practice.”

Baehr, Jason. “The Situationist Challenge to Educating for Intellectual Virtues.”

Baehr, Jason. “Is Intellectual Character Growth a Realistic Educational Aim?”

Baehr, Jason. “Four Dimensions of an Intellectual Virtue.”

Baehr, Jason. The Inquiring Mind.

Battaly, Heather. “Teaching Intellectual Virtues: Applying Virtue Epistemology in the Classroom.”

Battaly, Heather. Virtue.

Dow, Philip. Virtuous Minds.

Hare, William. “Is It Good to Be Open-Minded?

Hare, William. Open-mindedness and Education.

Hare, William. In Defense of Open-mindedness.

McAllister, James. “Virtue Epistemology and the Philosophy of Education.”

Roberts, Robert and Jay Wood. Intellectual Virtues: An Essay in Regulative Epistemology.

Silvia, Paul and Todd Kashdan. “Interesting Things and Curious People: Exploration and Engagement as Transient States and Enduring Strengths.”

Sockett, Hugh. Knowledge and Virtue in Teaching and Learning: The Primacy of Dispositions.

Steutel, Jan and Ben Speicker. “Rational Passions and Intellectual Virtue.”

von Stumm, Sophie, Benedikt Hell, and Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic. “The Hungry Mind: Intellectual Curiosity is the Third Pillar of Academic Performance.”




Barahal, Susan. “Thinking About Thinking: Preservice Teachers Strengthen their Thinking Artfully.”

Baron, Jonathan. “Reflective Thinking as a Goal of Education.”

Coutinho, Savia. “Self-Efficacy, Metacognition, and Performance.”

Sperling, R., B. Howard, and N. DuBois. “Metacognition and Self-Regulated Learning Constructs.”




Holland, Daniel. “Integrating Mindfulness and Somatic Awareness into a Public Education Setting.”

Hyland, Terry. “Mindfulness and the Therapeutic Function of Education.”

Langer, Ellen. The Power of Mindful Learning.

Langer, Ellen. “A Mindful Education.”

Perkins, David and Ron Ritchhart. “Life in the Mindful Classroom.”


Positive Education


Clonan, S.M. and S.M Chafouleas, J.L. McDougal, and T.C. Riley-Tillman. “Positive psychology goes to school: Are we there yet?

Noble, T. and H. McGrath. “The positive educational practices framework : A tool for facilitating the work of educational psychologists in promoting pupil wellbeing.”

Kristján Kristjánsson. Virtues and Vices in Positive Psychology.

Seligman, Martin, et al. “Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions.”


Project Zero/Thinking Dispositions


Perkins, David. Outsmarting IQ.

Perkins, David and Ron Ritchhart. “Life in the Mindful Classroom.”

Perkins, David, Ron Ritchart, Shari Tishman, Kiki Donis, and Al Andrade. “Intelligence in the Wild: A Dispositional View of Intellectual Traits.”

Ritchhart, Ron. Intellectual Character: What It is, Why It Matters, and How to Get It.

Ritchhart, Ron. Creating Cultures of Thinking.

Ritchhart, Ron. “From IQ to IC: A Dispositional View of Intelligence.”

Ritchhart, Ron. “Cultivating a Culture of Thinking in Museums.”

Ritchhart, Ron, Mark Church, and Karin Morrison, Making Thinking Visible.

Ritchhart, Ron, Terri Turner, and Linor Hadar. “Uncovering Students’ Thinking About Thinking Using Concept Maps.”

Tishman, Shari. “Why Teach Habits of Mind.”

Tishman, Shari. “The Object of Their Attention.”

Tishman, Shari, David Perkins, and Eileen Jay. The Thinking Classroom.

Tishman, Shari, Eileen Jay, and David Perkins. “Teaching Thinking Dispositions: From Enculturation to Transmission.”

Tishman, Shari and Patricia Palmer. “Making Thinking Visible.”

Tishman, Shari and Patricia Palmer. “Works of Art Are a Good Thing to Think About.”




Ablard, Karen and Rachelle Lipschultz. “Self-Regulated Learning in High-Achieving Students.”

Duckworth, Angela, et al. “Grit: Perseverance and Passion for Long-Term Goals.”

Duckworth, Angela, et al. “A Tripartite Taxonomy of Character.”

Duckworth, Angela, Patrick Quinn, and Eli Tsukayama. “What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades.”

Dweck, Carol, Gregory Walton, and Geoffrey Cohen. “Academic Tenacity: Mindsets and Skills that Promote Long-Term Learning.”

Schectman, Nicole, et al. “Promoting Grit, Tenacity, and Perseverance: Critical Factors for Success in the 21st Century.”

Tough, Paul. How Children Succeed.

Winne, Philip. “Inherent Details in Self-Regulated Learning.”


Soft/Non-Cognitive Skills


Heckman, James and Tim Kautz. 2012. “Hard Evidence on Softs Skills.”

Jacob, Brian. “Where the Boys Aren’t: Non-Cognitive Skills, Returns to School and the Gender Gap in Higher Education.”

Rothstein, Richard. “Class and Schools: Using Social, Economic, and Education Reform to Close the Achievement Gap.”




Benninga, Jack, et al. “The Relationship of Character Education Implementation and Academic Achievement in Elementary Schools.”

Berkowitz, Marvin and David Shields. “Mapping the Domain of Virtues.”

Carr, David. “Character in Teaching.”

Craig, Sheryl and Louise Deretchin, eds. Cultivating Curious and Creative Minds.

Farnham, Lija, et al. “Rethinking How Students Succeed.”

Goldie, Peter. “Loss of Affect in Intellectual Activity.”

Hurley, Casey. The Six Virtues of an Educated Person.

Kohn, Alfie. “How Not to Teach Values: A Critical Look at Character Education.”

Simister, C.J. The Bright Stuff: Playful Ways to Nurture Your Child’s Extraordinary Mind.